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[脉冲系统] 电磁自激聚能 闪电为何爆炸和磁流体发电(冷电)

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发表于 2016-12-16 19:56:28 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 无极动力 于 2016-12-16 21:32 编辑

WHY DOES LIGHTNING EXPLODE AND GENERATE MHD POWER?
闪电为何爆炸和磁流体发电
Peter Graneau
Center for Electromagnetics Research, Northeastern University Boston, MA 02115
电磁学研究中心,东北大学波士顿,MA 02115
Presented at Infinite Energy Magazine’s Cold Fusion and New Energy Symposium on October 11, 1998, Manchester, NH.
提出了一种无限能源杂志冷聚变和新能源座谈会在 1998 年 10 月 11 日,曼彻斯特,新罕布什尔州。

作者

作者
Abstract
摘要

The talk given at the Manchester symposium reviewed the long history of thunder research and proposed, for the first time, that it is arc liberated chemical energy from the air which explodes the lightning channel. Regardless of the cause of thunder, the ejection of ions from the atmospheric arc through the strong encircling magnetic field should generate MHD (mag-neto-hydrodynamic) power. This is expected to augment the flow of discharge current in the lightning stroke. Experimental evidence provided by  laboratory arcs of lightning strength supports current augmentation by MHD action.
在曼彻斯特座谈会上的讲话回顾了历史悠久的雷电研究,并首次提出,它是从空中爆炸的闪电通道的空气中释放的化学能。无论是雷电的原因,从大气电弧通过强大的环绕磁场离子喷射MHD(磁流体产生)功率。预计这将增加在雷击中的放电电流的流量。实验证据的闪电强度实验室弧电流增强MHD行动提供支持。

The Cause of Thunder
闪电的原因

The best known electric arc in air is the lightning stroke. It explodes and sends a shock wave through the surrounding air, which is known as thunder. Thinking man has observed thunder and lightning for thousands of years. This spectacle plays a role in both Eastern and Western mythology. Thunder is recognized as one of the oldest riddles of recorded scientific inquiry. At the end of the twentieth century we are still questioning what makes the lightning channel explode. Remillard1 published an excel- lent review of thunder research from Aristotle to 1960.
空气中最著名的电弧是雷击。它爆炸并发送通过周围的空气,被称为雷电冲击波。思考的人已经观察了几千年的雷声和闪电。这奇观在东方和西方神话中扮演着一个角色。雷被公认为记录科学探究的最古老的谜题之一。在第二十世纪末,我们仍然在质疑究竟是什么让闪电通道爆炸。remillard1发表一个Excel斋评论从亚里士多德到 1960 年的雷电研究综述。

In the middle of the present century it was firmly believed, but poorly substantiated, that it was the thermal expansion of the lightning plasma which set up the shock wave in air. Then in 1961 Viemeister2 published his findings with regard to “cold” and “hot” lightning. He wrote:
在本世纪中期曾坚定地认为,但差证实,它那是闪电等离子体的热膨胀,在空气中建立了冲击波。然后维美斯特(Viemeister)2 1961 年出版了他的"冷"与"热"闪电定论。他写道︰

Cold lightning is a lightning flash whose main return stroke is of intense current but of short duration. Hot lightning involves lesser currents but of longer duration. Hot lightning is apt to start fires while cold lightning generally has mechanical or explosive effects.
冷闪电是其主要的回击是强流但持续时间短的闪电。热闪电涉及到较小的电流,但持续时间长。热闪电就很容易引发火灾,而冷闪电一般具有机械或爆炸性的影响。
***无极点评:这句话是这篇论文的第一个亮点,它表述了“冷”与“热”闪电的现象及结果,它与自由能中谈论的“冷电”与“热电”密切相关,但唯一的不足就是没有深入的解释其中电磁冷却的机制,而这种机制就是去磁冷却。***

In the 1980s we proved at MIT3 with photography and other means that the shock wave emanating from a short air arc of less than one centimeter length and carrying current of lightning strength, between metal electrodes, did not propagate with a spherical front, as it should have if random thermal collisions between air molecules provided the driving force. Instead the explosion was found to be a distinctly radial blast. The expanding air plasma disk, of a thickness equal to the arc length, was ablated by the environmental atmosphere and formed a supersonic edge. By Viemeister’s definition, this was a cold arc. A sheet of newsprint stretched across the arc gap was mechanically torn, but did not catch fire, so long as it did not touch the electrodes,which exhibited surface melting. No charring or any signs of heating could be detected on the paper.
在20世纪80年代,我们在麻省理工学院通过摄影和其他手段证明,冲击波来自一个短的空气弧小于一厘米的长度和载流电流的雷电强度,在金属电极之间,没有传播与一个球形的前端,作为它应该有,如果空气分子之间的随机热碰撞提供了动力。相反,爆炸被认为是一个明显的径向爆炸。膨胀的空气等离子体盘的厚度等于弧长,消融的环境气氛,形成超音速的边缘。根据 Viemeister 的定义,这是一个寒冷的弧。一张新闻纸横跨电弧间隙被机械撕裂,但没有着火,因此,只要它没有触及的电极,展出表面熔化。在纸上检测不到任何炭化或加热的任何迹象。

If not heat, what is it that propels the radial arc explosion? The process of gas breakdown and ionization absorbs rather than liberates energy. Arc plasmas are charge neutral and have never exhibited Coulomb force implosions or explosions. Fifteen years ago we thought the forces which drove the arc ions apart had to be of electrodynamic origin, that is they had to be ponderomotive magnetic forces between current elements. Measurements4 confirmed decisively that the explosion strength increased with arc current in conformity with an electrodynamic explanation.
如果不热,这是什么驱使电弧径向爆炸?气体击穿和电离过程吸收而不是释放的能量。电弧等离子体的电荷中性,从来没有表现出库仑力的内爆或爆炸。十五年前,我们认为这将电弧离子的力量分开了是电动的起源,这是他们必须相互之间的磁力电流元。测量明确地证实了爆炸强度随弧电流增加符合电动的解释。

Unfortunately, according to conventional electromagnetic theory, the dominant electrodynamic force on the arc should be the Lorentz pinch force. This could cause an arc implosion but it acts in the wrong direction for the observed explosion. The Newtonian electrodynamics4 with Ampere's force law agrees with the Lorentz pinch force but, in addition, predicts strong axial pressure in the arc column. Without a containment tube, the axial pressure will break out in the radial direction. Ten years ago this appeared to be the most likely cause of thunder and air arc explosions.
不幸的是,根据传统的电磁理论,对电弧的主导电动力应该是洛仑兹捏(收缩)力。这可能会导致弧内爆,但它的行为中是在错误的方向上观察到的爆炸。安培力定律与牛顿动力学与洛仑兹捏(收缩)力表示一致,此外,预测弧柱内的强轴向压力。如果没有安全壳管,轴向压力将在径向上爆发。十年前,这似乎是雷电和空气电弧爆炸最有可能的原因。

Intense research of high current arcs at MIT and Northeastern University did, however, reveal that the Ampere forces were too small, by at least a factor of ten, to create the measured arc pressures. This research also involved water arcs in which the explosion pressure was a hundred times that which could be justified with Ampere forces. Then it was discovered that the water arc explosions were the result of the liberation of internal chemical energy. This led to a complete change of the under- standing of the dynamics of pulsed arc explosions.
麻省理工学院和东北大学对强电流电弧做了认真的研究,然而,揭示出安培力太小,由至少一个数量级,以创建测量的电弧压力。这项研究还涉及水弧,其中爆炸压力是一百倍,可以辩解以安培力。然而此后发现,水弧爆炸是内部化学能释放的结果。这导致脉冲的电弧爆炸动力学的理解完全改变。


Liberating Chemical Bond Energy with an Electric Arc
用电弧释放化学键能

All substances owe their existence to chemical bonding. The bonds involve largely electrical forces of attraction and repulsion. In the bonding of any two particles, the attraction must be balanced by nuclear or atomic repulsion, otherwise matter would collapse and fuse. Forces of repulsion are said to store positive potential energy, while forces of attraction store negative potential energy. If negative potential energy were to annihilate positive potential energy, there would exist no stored bond energy, no bonding, and no matter. We are driven to the conclusion that both these energies must be able to exist side by side.
所有物质都归功于它们的化学结合。债券涉及很大的吸引力和排斥力的电力。在任何两个粒子的结合,吸引力必须通过核或原子斥力平衡,否则物质会崩溃和融合。斥力的力量被称为储存正的势能,而吸引力储存负势能的力量。如果负电位能量消灭潜在的积极能量,就没有存储键能,没有粘结,也没有问题。我们的结论是,这两个能量必须能够同时存在。

What is known is how much heat it takes to break a bond. This should be—and sometimes is—described as bond dissociation energy. There is no reason to believe that bond dissociation energy must be equal to the stored bond energy. In fact, a given bond may be broken in an electric arc without heating and the dissociation energy is then likely to be very different from the thermal dissociation energy. Bond energy tables actually list thermal dissociation energies. In general, we do not know what the stored potential energies of bonding are.
什么是已知的多少热量可以打破一个键合。这应该是,有时被描述为键离解能。没有理由相信,键离解能必须等于所存储的键能。事实上,一个给定的键可能被打破在没有加热的电弧和离解能,然后可能是非常不同的热离解能。键能表实际上列出热离解能。在一般情况下,我们不知道的键合的潜在能量是什么。

Water arc experiments have shown4,5 that a small amount of electrodynamic energy can unlock a much larger amount of stored intermolecular bond energy, which then causes an explosion. It is not unreasonable to suspect that a similar arc-triggered bond energy release is responsible for the explosion of lightning channels. That lightning and arcs in atmospheric air are responsible for chemical reactions has been known for a long time. In fact, electric arcs are used commercially to convert N2 and O2 molecules of air to NO, that is nitric oxide.
水下电弧实验表明,少量的电能可以解锁一个更大的存储量的分子间的键能,从而导致爆炸。这是不是不合理的怀疑,一个类似的电弧触发键能释放是负责雷电通道的爆炸。在大气中的闪电和电弧是负责化学反应已经知道了很长一段时间。事实上,人们将商业上用于电弧将空气 N2 和 O2 分子转换 NO,那就是一氧化氮。

A considerable body of knowledge exists regarding the heat required to break up the strongly bonded N2 molecule, but there exists no information indicating how much potential energy is stored in the molecule. When the N-N bond of the N2 molecule is deprived of its attraction force by a small electrodynamic force, or action, in the arc, the remaining large repulsion force between the two atoms may instantly drive the atoms apart in an event which could be described as an explosion.
有相当多的知识存在关于所需的热量,打破了强烈键合的N2分子,但存在没有信息表明多少潜在的能量被存储在分子中。当N2分子的N-N键被剥夺了它的吸引力,由一个小的电动力,或行动,在电弧,其余大斥力两原子之间可以立即驱动原子分开可以被描述为爆炸事件。

In view of the fact that more than two thousand years of research have not found the cause of thunder, it now looks entirely possible that this cause is the unknown amount of chemical bond energy stored in N2 and O2  molecules.
鉴于两千多年的研究没有发现有雷声的原因,它现在看起来完全有可能,这原因是存储在 N2 和 O2 分子中的化学键能量的未知的量。

The Exploding Air Arc as an MHD Generator
爆炸空气电弧的磁流体发电机

Ordinary MHD generators, used in military and space applications, employ a rectangular plasma duct of heat resisting dielectric material. This duct is shown in Figure 1. Typically the plasma traveling at high velocity v down the duct is the flame of an oil burner. Electromagnets are usually employed to set up the magnetic flux ??across the duct which intersects the plasma stream. The ion motion at right angles to the magnetic flux induces the electromotive force (emf) in the direction perpendicular to plasma flow and magnetic field.
爆炸空气电弧的磁流体发电机普通MHD发电机,用于军事和空间应用,采用矩形等离子管耐热绝缘材料。该导管如图1所示。通常情况下,在高速V下的等离子体行波管是一个石油燃烧器的火焰。电磁铁通常采用建立磁通??磁通直角离子运动方向垂直于等离子体流和磁场诱导电动势 (emf)。

磁流体发电机原理

磁流体发电机原理
Figure 1.  Conventional MHD generator.
图1。传统的磁流体发电机。

电弧的磁流体发电机

电弧的磁流体发电机
Figure 2.  The arc as an MHD generator.
图2。电弧的磁流体发电机。
***无极点评:这里是这篇论文的最大亮点,电弧磁流体发电机,它与我提及的偶极子天线有着雷同的结构。不仅如此,它还与Karl Schappeller的原型机有几分神似!英雄也许所见略同,但电磁自激聚能技术也远非此二者能比拟。呵呵呵***

As shown in Figure 1, metal electrodes are built into the duct wall so that electrons accelerated by the MHD emf can flow from the electrodes through an external load. This current i represents the electrical energy output of the MHD generator.In the electric arc, the current creates an encircling magnetic field of considerable strength. Now consider vertical electrodes with an arc gap between them. The magnetic flux circles then lie in horizontal planes. Explosively driven ions, moving radially outward from the arc gap, cross the magnetic flux lines and induce a vertical MHD emf, or the field Em, in the expanding plasma. Electromagnetic theories are found to demand that the induced emf acts in the direction of arc current flow, as shown by Em in Figure 2. Hence, the electric arc has to behave like an MHD power generator.
如图1所示,管壁内置金属电极使电子加速流动MHD电动势从电极通过一个外部负载。这代表了磁流体发电机的电能输出的电流。在电弧,电流会产生具有一定的强度环绕的磁场。现在考虑垂直电极与它们之间的电弧间隙。磁流圈则位于水平面上。爆炸驱动离子,从弧隙径向向外移动,横向磁通线产生垂直磁流体电动势,或电场,并不断扩大等离子体。电磁理论被发现要求感应的电动势作用在电弧电流流的方向,如图2所示。因此,电弧已表现得像磁流体发电机。

The motionally induced emf in the direction of current flow is a forward emf associated with the conversion of mechanical energy, derived from chemical sources, to electrical energy. The reverse process of the conversion of electrical energy to mechanical energy, as in a motor, produces a back emf. For example, if an electric current is forced to flow through the electrodes of the MHD device of Figure 1 and the plasma is replaced with liquid metal, the apparatus becomes a liquid metal pump, which is the linear motion equivalent of a rotating motor. The motionally induced emf then opposes current flow and therefore is a back emf.
motionally感应电动势在电流流动的方向是与机械能转换的相关的正电势,来自化学源,电能。电能转换为机械能的过程,如在马达中,产生反电动势。例如,如果电流被强制通过图1的MHD设备、等离子电极与金属液取代,该装置成为液态金属泵,这是一个旋转的电动机的直线运动等效。Motionally 感应的电动势然后反对电流流动,因此是一个反电动势。

The back emf per unit current has the dimension of a resistance.It adds to the resistance of the current circuit through the electrodes. Similarly, a forward emf per unit current subtracts from the resistance. Hence, we may argue that in the MHD generator the current is increased by a reduction of the internal resistance of the arc plasma.
单位电流的反电势具有电阻的特性,它通过电极增加了电流电路的电阻。同样,从电阻减去每单位电流正向电动势。因此,我们可以认为,在磁流体发电机电流以减少电弧等离子体的内部阻力。

Experimental Indication of the Presence of MHD Energy in an Air Arc
实验显示空气电弧存在磁流体能量
此处略去若干字……

……



Conclusion
结论

The cause of thunder has eluded scientists from Aristotle on right up to the end of the twentieth century. All explanations advanced in this long search have been disproved with laboratory experiments involving atmospheric air arcs of lightning strength. Now a new explanation has been put on the table. It claims the explosion of the lightning channel is due to the impulsive liberation of chemical bond energy stored in the diatomic molecules of nitrogen and oxygen. It will take time before this suggestion is widely confirmed or rejected.
闪电的原因从亚里士多德到第二十世纪末一直困扰着科学家们。在这长期的探索中,所有解释已被实验室中先进的涉及大气电弧闪电强度的实验所推翻。现在一个新的解释已在桌子上。它声称的闪电通道爆炸是由于存储在氮气和氧气的双原子分子中的化学键能量脉冲解放。这项建议是否被广泛确认或拒绝之前它需要时间。

The lightning channel undoubtedly explodes and thereby shoots air ions through the magnetic field of the lightning cur rent. This should result in the generation of MHD power and an augmentation of the arc current. It now appears that notice of this fact has escaped arc scientists. Maxwell's field theory and the Newtonian electrodynamics agree that the effect should exist, but it remains to be established if it is of significant or negligible magnitude. The first experimental findings suggest that it is significant.
闪电通道无疑爆炸和从而射击空气离子通过磁场的闪电电流。这应导致磁流体发电和扩充的电弧电流。现在看来,这一事实已经通知了弧的科学家。麦斯威尔电磁场理论和牛顿电动力学认为效果应该存在,但它尚有待确定它是否显著或可以忽略不计的程度。第一个实验研究结果表明它具有重要意义。

***无极点评:世界上最完美的易于控制的等离子体与磁流体,那就是——电流!明白了这个道理才会明白什么是以电流来发电!来获取无限的能量! ***

WHY DOES LIGHTNING EXPLODE AND GENERATE MHD POWER?
闪电为何爆炸和磁流体发电    (原文点评下载)

WHY DOES LIGHTNING EXPLODE AND GENERATE MHD POWER.pdf

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楼主热帖
发表于 2016-12-16 22:41:26 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 zjdwsr 于 2016-12-16 22:45 编辑

任何现象都值得去领会,领会了才能理解现象。论不清就道不明
发表于 2016-12-17 09:01:29 | 显示全部楼层
当头棒喝,幡然醒悟
发表于 2016-12-17 23:07:15 | 显示全部楼层
多谢提供围观学习的机会。
发表于 2016-12-18 06:46:57 | 显示全部楼层
下载附件速度奇慢。

点评

最近网络就这样,它心情不好时只能跑到几K。  发表于 2016-12-18 13:25
 楼主| 发表于 2016-12-18 13:30:15 | 显示全部楼层
沉睡 发表于 2016-12-17 09:01
当头棒喝,幡然醒悟

希望能够醒悟的应该是那些搞聚变能的那些官科大佬们。搞冷聚变很简单,而热聚变不过是一堆价值几何的垃圾。
发表于 2016-12-18 14:27:00 | 显示全部楼层
无极动力 发表于 2016-12-18 13:30
希望能够醒悟的应该是那些搞聚变能的那些官科大佬们。搞冷聚变很简单,而热聚变不过是一堆价值几何的垃圾 ...

也许,醉翁之意不在酒,而在乎山水之间也~~~~~~热聚变似乎可以成为稳定的定向能射流集束装置的前导或源泉吧?至于拿来做什么?呵呵。。。

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